Cosmetic surgery that tightens the lower eyelids and it raises the external corners of the eyes. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia, taking anywhere from an hour to three hours to complete. Scars from a Canthopexy are minimal. Canthopexy is also performed to treat conditions such as Entropion (a condition in which the eyelids are turned inwards) and dry eyes.

Cartilage Grafting

This procedure involves transplanting the patient’s own healthy cartilage, sometimes from the rib, or cadaver cartilage, to replace damaged areas of cartilage. It can be used for knee, nose and congenital ear defects in children and in adults. 


When bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure (enamel, dentin, and cementum), these tissues progressively break down, producing dental caries (holes in the teeth), or cavities. Two groups of bacteria are responsible for initiating caries: Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. If left untreated, the disease can lead to pain, tooth loss, infection and, in severe cases, death.


This lumpy substance, resembling cottage cheese, occurs mainly in women on the pelvic region, lower limbs and abdomen. It is caused by collections of fat that push against the connective tissue beneath a person's skin, which causes the surface of the skin to dimple or pucker and look lumpy (have an orange-peel like appearance).

Chemical Peels

This type of facial peel uses a chemical solution to improve and smooth the texture of the facial skin by removing its damaged outer layers. It is helpful for those individuals with facial blemishes, wrinkles and uneven skin pigmentation. Phenol, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and alphahydroxy acids (AHAs) are used for this purpose.

Chin Augmentation

A surgical procedure that creates a larger or more defined chin, during which a plastic surgeon places an implant in the chin region through an incision either inside the mouth or under the chin, which is barely noticeable after healing.

Chin Dimples

Chins become dimpled or cleft when the underlying bone structure of the jaw grows with an indentation in the center. Scientists think cleft chins occur when the left and right halves of the jaw fail to fully merge during embryological and fetal development. But unlike other analogous conditions such as cleft palate or harelip, a cleft chin is a neutral trait. It neither makes the possessor more or less biologically fit, although many find it attractive.

Chin Reduction

A surgical procedure that lessens a prominent-looking chin. A plastic surgeon will make an incision inside the mouth or under the chin to access the bone. The physician will set it back so that it appears less angular, or slide it forward if it is bony and angular, which will soften the contours.


This type of protein is fibrous in nature and connects and supports other bodily tissues, such as skin, bone, tendons, muscles and cartilage. It also supports the internal organs and is even present in teeth. There are more than 25 types of collagens that naturally occur in the body.

Collagen-Stimulating Fillers

Restructure and add volume to fat-deficient areas of the face. There are different types of collagen fillers: Sculptra Aesthetic and Radiesse are the most well-known options.

Collagen Stimulators

Contain particles that signal the skin to produce more collagen. Instead of just filling in select lines and wrinkles, these are used on larger areas like the cheeks. The results (which are not instant but improve over time) are longer-lasting; you may need a series of treatments for maximum results. Sculptra is an example of a collagen stimulator.

Cool Lipo
A laser-assisted treatment that uses a vacuum applicator to cool fat in the body to 4 degrees Celsius, which causes the fat cells to die. Once crystallized and eliminated, the fat cells do not return to the treated area.

A leading U.S.-based developer and manufacturer of innovative, advanced laser products for medical professionals. Engineering and science-based, CoolTouch is considered a pioneer in the medical and aesthetics technology industry. In 1994, CoolTouch introduced the first 1320 nm wavelength laser to medical professionals for non-ablative wrinkle treatment. CoolTouch continued to set new standards in the industry with the launch of CoolTouch CTEV™ in 2004 for varicose vein treatment and with CoolLipo™ for laser lipolysis and skin tightening in 2007.


A type of steroid produced naturally by a gland in the body called the adrenal gland. Cortisone is released from the adrenal gland when the body is under stress. Natural cortisone is released into the blood stream and is relatively short-acting.

Cortisone Injections

A powerful anti-inflammatory medication (but not pain-relieving), injectable cortisone is synthetically produced and has many different trade names (e.g. Celestone, Kenalog, etc.), but is a close derivative of the body's own product. The most significant differences are that synthetic cortisone is not injected into the blood stream, but into a particular area of inflammation. By injecting the cortisone into a particular area of inflammation, very high concentrations of the medication can be given while keeping potential side-effects to a minimum. Cortisone injections usually work within a few days, and the effects can last up to several weeks.

Cosmetic Contouring

Cosmetic body contouring surgery seeks to improve the shape, contours and proportions of the body through surgery. Body contouring procedures include sculpting procedures such as liposuction of the body as well as augmentation of the buttocks or calves.

Crown Lengthening

A surgical procedure performed by a dentist to expose a greater amount of tooth structure for the purpose of subsequently restoring the tooth prosthetically.


This term is used to describe the wrinkles in the skin at the outer corner of the eyes. These are due to smiling, squinting and activity of the eyelid muscles.


A surgical procedure in which one or more incisions are made through a mother's abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies, or, rarely, to remove a dead fetus. A Caesarean section is usually performed when a vaginal delivery would put the baby's or mother's life or health at risk; although in recent times it has been performed upon request for childbirths that could otherwise have been natural.